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Candy  Making  Industry 
in  Philadelphia 








>UP.l     liv     lln- 

Educational   Pamphlet   No.  i<  issued   by   lln-   Educational  Conmittee 
(.1   ilie   Philadelphia  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Copyright.    1417.    Philadelphia   Chamber  of  Commerce. 

OCT  -8  1917 

The  Candy-Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

By  Elhvood  B.  Chapman 

WHO  would  dream  as  he  leaves  the  confectionery  store  with  the 
box  of  chocolates  under  his  arm  that  the  very  ends  of  the 
earth  had  been  ransacked  for  these  sweets?  Good  Mother 
Nature  must  have  given  thought  to  the  "sweet  tooth"  of  her  chil- 
dren when  she  stored  her  larder  so  abundantly  with  good  things — 
the  sugar  cane,  the  sugar  maple,  the  sugar  beet,  honey  everywhere, 
the  cocoa  bean  and  the  hundreds  of  flavors  that  add  to  the  tooth- 
some qualities  of  confectionery:  fruits,  nuts,  vanilla  beans,  gums, 
resins  and  spices. 

From  the  very  early  ages  man  seems  to  have  had  a  taste  for 
sweets;  honey  was  the  first  sweet  substance  known.  We  are  all 
familiar  with  the  Biblical  reference,  "A  land  flowing  with  milk  and 
honey";  even  before  the  Biblical  era,  crude  confections  in  some 
form  were  made  by  mixing  honey  with  fruits. 

Crystallized  sugar  is  now  the  basis  of  all  confectionery.  It  has 
been  in  use  since  the  early  days  of  the  Christian  era,  the  first  refer- 
ence to  it  appearing  300  A.  D. 

Sugar  cane  was  first  discovered  growing  wild  in  India:  Arabs 
and  Egyptians  in  these  early  days  prepared  candy  by  crystallizing 
sugar  from  the  juice  of  the  cane.  It  was  first  introduced  into 
Europe  by  the  Crusaders,  who  brought  it  with  them  from  the  Holy 
Land.  Sugar  was  then  used  principally  by  apothecaries  to  disguise 
the  taste  of  drugs,  and  it  was  only  about  two  hundred  years  ago  that 
the  confectionery  industry  began  to  develop  independently  of  its 
medicinal  association.  The  growth  of  the  industry  was  very  slow : 
it  is  only  within  the  last  half  century  that  it  has  begun  to  assume 
larger  proportions. 

Early  Philadelphia  Candy  Makers 
The  earliest  mention  that  is  made  of  a  confectioner  in  Philadel- 
phia was  in  1765;  Abraham  Smith  conducted  a  fruit  business  at 
that  time  and  sold  a  few  simple  candies.  In  1800  an  advertisement 
of  Bosse's  Ice  Cream  House,  Germantown,  appeared  in  the  "Aurora," 
mder  date  of  July  22;  syrups,  cakes,  wines,  jellies  and  a  few  con- 
fections were  sold.  Irving,  in  "Salmagundi,"  in  the  stranger  in 
Pennsylvania,  tells  how  molasses  candy  was  made  in  Philadelphia 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

in  1807.  These  are  the  only  references  that  can  be  found  to  the 
trade  prior  to  1816. 

The  history  of  the  business  in  Philadelphia  really  dates  back 
to  this  year,  just  one  century  ago;  prior  to  1818  but  little  is  known 
of  the  local  trade  with  the  exception  of  the  few  instances  cited.  At 
that  date  there  were  published  the  names  of  twenty  confectioners  in 
this  city ;  the  one  who  seems  to  have  been  most  prominently  known 
among  these  was  Sebastian  Henrion,  who  was  then  located  at  15 
S.  4th  Street,  afterwards  at  118  High  Street  (Market  Street).  He 
retired  in  1844,  being  succeeded  by  the  firm  of  Henrion  &  Chauveau : 
this  latter  firm  continued  until  1857.  Others  who  obtained  prom- 
inence at  this  time  were  Paul  Lajus,  N.  E.  cor.  3rd  &  High  Streets, 
afterwards  at  86  High  Street,  and  Jeffrey  Chew,  262,  and  later  301, 
S.  5th  Street;  the  former  continued  in  business  until  1841  and  the 
latter  until  1848.  In  1833  George  Miller  commenced  business  and 
continued  until  the  time  of  his  death. 

All  of  these  firms  and  their  successors  have  disappeared,  the 
only  living  representative  of  any  of  them  who  is  at  present  identified 
with  the  industry  is  A.  J.  Chauveau,  now  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  confectioners'  novelties.  Mr.  Chauveau  has  in  his  posses- 
sion what  is  probably  the  oldest  piece  of  candy  in  existence  in  this 
country,  a  piece  of  conserve  made  about  1845.  Crude  though  it 
seems,  it  doubtless  brought  joy  to  the  heart  of  some  appreciative 

Piece  of  candy  made  about 

Fancy     paper     in     which 
it    was    wrapped 

Prior  to  1845  there  were  few  attempts  to  manufacture  high- 
grade  confectionery,  the  local  dealers  contenting  themselves  with 
molasses  candies,  stick  candies  and  sugar  plums  of  their  own  manu- 
facture ;  the  better  grades  being  imported,  principally  from  France. 
In  the  early  40's,  Sebastian  Henrion  made  the  first  Cream  Choco- 
lates and  Jim  Crows,  the  latter,  which  were  quite  black,  being 
named  after  a  troupe  of  colored  minstrels  then  playing. 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

Firms  Engaged  in  the  Industry  To-day 

Among  the  names  prominently  identified  with  this  industry 
to-day  are  those  of  Whitman's,  Huyler's,  Laurent,  Maron  and  Wil- 
bur. There  are  also  a  number  of  large  manufacturers  who  have  no 
retail  stores,  but  sell  their  product  to  the  smaller  confectioners ; 
among  those  might  be  mentioned  Croft  and  Allen,  Brandle  and 
Smith  Company,  E.  G.  Whitman,  Quaker  City  Chocolate  and  Con- 
fectionery Company,  Philip  Wunderle,  John  Miller  &  Son,  Manu- 
facturing Company  of  America,  and  Smith  and  Peters. 

Two  firms  have  attracted  attention  during  the  last  few  years 
through  the  operation  of  chain  stores  for  the  sale  of  inexpensive 
candies;  they  are  Montague  and  Company,  and  the  Gates  Candy 

Huyler's  factory  and  principal  retail  stores  are  in  New  York, 
where  they  were  established  in  1874.  The  firm  operates  a  chain  of 
sixty-one  stores  throughout  the  country:  these  are  recognized 
everywhere  by  the  familiar  red  curtain,  with  its  inscription  familiar 
to  all  candy-lovers,  "Old-fashioned  Molasses  Candy,  fresh  every 
hour."  The  Philadelphia  store,  at  1320  Chestnut  Street,  was 
opened  in  1886. 

The  business  of  Laurent  &  Maron  was  started  in  the  year  1850 
on  4th  Street  above  Arch,  and  five  years  later  removed  to  the  N.  W. 
cor.  6th  and  Arch  Streets.  Later  the  partnership  was  dissolved, 
and  was  succeeded  by  F.  Laurent  &  Sons.  In  1878  they  removed 
to  1306  Chestnut,  subsequently  to  1308  Chestnut,  their  present 
location.  During  building  operations  in  1909  this  firm  occupied  at 
different  times  during  the  first  six  months  of  the  year,  1306,  1308 
and  1310  Chestnut  Street,  being  closed  only  two  hours  during 

Alfred  Maron  continued  business  alone  at  830  Walnut  street, 
and  in  1874  succeeded  Charles  Penas,  who  came  to  this  country 
from  France  in  the  later  50's.  About  five  years  later  another  store 
was  opened  at  1614  Chestnut  Street,  the  two  stores  being  operated 
together  for  six  years.  He  died  in  1914,  being  succeeded  by  his  son, 
A.  C.  Maron. 

Samuel  Croft  was  engaged  in  retail  and  jobbing  confectionery 
business  prior  to  1868.  In  that  year  he  formed  a  partnership  with 
H.  O.  Wilbur,  locating  at  125  N.  2nd  Street.  Later  this  partnership 
was  dissolved  and  two  new  firms  succeeded  them,  H.  O.  Wilbur  and 
Sons  taking  up  the  manufacture  of  cocoa  and  chocolate  at  3rd  and 
New  Streets,  and  Croft  and  Allen  the  manufacture  of  a  general  line 
of  confectionery  in  West  Philadelphia. 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 


tjT  4«>  V'.' 


CANDY    BOX    <  »F    1854 

The  most  remarkable  evidence  of  the  growth  of  confectionery 
industry  in  Philadelphia  is  the  business  of  Whitman's,  established 
in  1842  by  Stephen  F.  Whitman.  It  outgrew  its  quarters  and  was 
removed  in  the  early  60's  to  1210  Market.  After  several  other 
changes  in  location,  the  continued  increase  in  output  necessitated 
still  larger  quarters.  In  1889  the  business  was  therefore  divided, 
the  factory  being  removed  to  6th  and  Cherry  Streets,  and  the  retail 
store  to  its  present  location  at  1316  Chestnut  Street.  In  1906  the 
factory  was  removed  to  the  large  building,  411  to  421  Race  Street, 
and  with  still  further  recent  additions  it  now  occupies  the  entire 
block  on  Race  Street  from  4th  Street  to  Lawrence  Street. 

To  this  firm  is  due  the  credit  for  the  first  attempt  to  pack  con- 
fectionery in  boxes ;  this  was  in  1854,  and  from  this  small  beginning 
has  developed  the  wonderful  system  of  to-day,  candies  being  now 
packed  in  the  most  artistic  manner  in  handsome  boxes,  some  of 
which  contain  as  much  as  ten  pounds. 

Size  of  Industry  and  Present  Importance 
Some  idea  may  be  gained  of  the  rapid  strides  which  the  indus- 
try has  made  in  Philadelphia  within  recent  years  when  it  is  stated 
that  from  the  twenty  small  stores  in  1816.  with  their  very  limited 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia  7 

production,  it  had  grown  in  1915  to  131  establishments,  none  with 
less  than  five  employees,  and  from  a  volume  of  $766,000  in  1860 
it  had  increased  to  $7,398,651  in  1915. 


To  trace  the  contents  of  a  box  of  confections  back  to  the  sources 
of  their  ingredients,  and  then  to  follow,  step  by  step,  their  shipment, 
their  assembling  and  the  various  processes  through  which  they  go 
in  the  course  of  their  manufacture,  would  require  volumes.  For 
our  purpose  here  it  will  suffice  to  describe  briefly  the  making  of 
two  or  three  typical  pieces. 

Making  Cream  Chocolates 

Every  one  is  familiar  with  the  Cream  Chocolate,  which  was 
one  of  the  first  to  be  made,  but  few  could  imagine  the  steps 
that  are  required  to  bring  it  to  perfection.  In  the  first  place, 
to  make  the  center,  a  quantity  of  sugar  is  placed  in  a  large  copper 
pan  and  sufficient  water  added  to  enable  it  to  be  melted  quickly  over 
heat ;  after  the  sugar  is  dissolved,  the  process  of  boiling  is  continued 
for  a  sufficient  length  of  time  to  evaporate  a  great  deal  of  the  excess 
water.  When  this  is  made  in  quantities  of  not  over  thirty  or  forty 
pounds,  it  is  cooked  in  a  shallow  copper  pan,  about  twenty-four 
inches  in  diameter,  and  during  the  process  of  boiling  is  stirred  with 
a  large  wooden  paddle.  In  the  larger  factories  of  to-day  this  process 
is  mechanical,  the  copper  pans  being  made  of  sufficient  size  to  con- 
tain a  whole  barrel  of  sugar,  and  the  stirring  being  done  by  rows 
of  paddles  attached  to  a  power-driven  axle  in  the  center  of  the 

When  the  process  of  boiling  as  above  described  is  ended,  a 
heavy  syrup  is  obtained.  This  is  poured  while  still  hot  on  a  large 
cast-iron  table,  about  five  to  six  feet  in  diameter,  with  an  edge 
about  six  inches  high.  This  table  is  made  with  double  walls,  and  is 
cooled  by  means  of  water  circulating  between  the  inner  and  outer 
wall.  As  the  syrup  cools  gradually  it  is  kept  constantly  in  motion 
by  pieces  of  iron,  shaped  somewhat  similar  to  a  plow-share,  which 
are  attached  to  arms  driven  from  the  center  of  the  table  and  kept 
constantly  revolving.  This  constant  agitation  prevents  the  forma- 
tion of  large  crystals  of  sugar,  so  that  when  the  syrup  is  cooled  and 
hardened  and  the  process  of  crystallization  has  been  completed  the 
crystals  are  so  minute  as  to  be  hardly  noticeable.  The  heavy, 
viscous  mass  which  results  gives  a  soft,  smooth  feeling  on  the 
tongue  when  tasted,  and  hence  derives  its  common  name,  "Cream." 
Under  the  old-fashioned  methods,  when  cream  was  made  in  small 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

quantities,  it  was  poured  on  a  large  slab  of  marble  hollowed  out  in 
the  center,  and  while  cooling  was  worked  up  by  hand,  two  men 
standing  on  opposite  sides  of  the  marble  slab,  using  large  wooden 
paddles  for  this  purpose. 

The  next  operation  is  the  molding  of  this  Cream  into  the 
proper  shapes,  to  be  covered  with  Chocolate.  This  is  done  in 
powdered  starch:  a  shallow  wooden  tray  is  filled  with  very  finely 
powdered  corn-starch,  which  is  leveled  flush  with  the  sides  of  the 
tray.  A  printing  frame,  consisting  of  a  board  to  which  are  attached 
a  number  of  rows  of  wooden  molds,  each  one  the  size  and  shape  of 
the  cream  center,  is  pressed  firmly  into  the  starch,  and  when  with- 
drawn it  leaves  a  number  of  depressions,  in  which  the  cream  is  to 
be  molded.  The  cream  is  then  melted,  flavored  with  vanilla  or 
other  flavors,  and  poured  into  the  depressions  in  the  starch  by 
means  of  a  funnel ;  the  mouth  of  the  funnel  is  closed  by  means  of  a 
short  stick,  which  fits  it  closely.  The  candy  maker  moves  rapidly 
from  one  depression  to  the  next,  allowing  a  small  quantity  of  cream 
to  flow  into  each  depression  by  alternately  opening  and  closing  the 
end  of  the  funnel.    This  is  known  as  casting. 


Containing    126    cream    centers.      Printing    frame    above 

Some  casters,  after  years  of  experience,  become  so  expert  that 
they  can  mold  row  after  row  of  these  cream  centers  as  fast  as  it  is 
possible  to  move  the  funnel  from  one  depression  to  the  next.  These 
trays,  when  filled,  are  laid  aside  in  tiers  for  several  hours  to  allow 
the  cream  to  cool  and  become  sufficiently  firm  for  handling. 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

The  Mogul  Machine 

One  of  the  greatest  strides  in  the  making  of  confectionery  was 
the  introduction,  a  number  of  years  ago,  of  a  machine  known  as  the 
Mogul,  which  performs  mechanically  this  operation  of  casting;  one 
machine,  attended  by  three  men,  being  able  to  do  the  work  formerly 
done  by  twelve  to  fifteen  men.  In  one  end  of  this  machine  the 
starch  boards  filled  with  the  molded  creams  are  placed,  one 
at   a   time.      They   are   then   automatically   emptied,    the    starch 



For   refilling-   and   leveling  trays,   molding  and   casting. 

This  machine  empties   the   starch-boards,   refills 

and    levels    them,    then    prints    the    starch, 

making  molds  in  it,   and  fills  these 

molds  with  sugar  cream 

being  separated  from  the  creams  and  the  latter  delivered  at  one 
side  of  the  machine.  After  this  the  starch  is  sifted  through  fine 
sieves  to  remove  any  small  particles  of  sugar,  and  the  board,  which 
has  been  emptied,  is  refilled  with  starch,  the  top  leveled,  and 
delivered  on  an  endless  belt  for  the  operation  of  printing  and  casting. 
As  the  starch  tray  moves  along  the  endless  belt,  a  printing 
board  similar  to  the  one  described  in  the  hand  operation  is  pressed 
down  upon  it  automatically,  leaving  row  after  row  of  depressions. 
It  then  moves  one  step  further,  coming  directly  underneath  a  large 
copper  tank  filled  with  melted  cream,  which  is  kept  at  the  proper 
temperature  by  means  of  a  steam-jacket.  From  the  bottom  of  this 
tank  extends  a  long  row  of  tubes,  each  one  directly  above  one  of  the 
depressions  in  the  starch.  Each  of  these  tubes  is  fitted  with  a  tiny 
pump,  which,  as  the  starch  board  moves  under,  automatically 
delivers  a  measured  amount  of  the  melted  cream.  The  tray  is  then 
pushed  a  few  inches  further  and  another  row  filled.  When  the  last 
row  has  been  filled  the  tray  is  removed  from  the  machine  by  the 
attendant  and  the  next  tray  appears,  ready  to  be  filled  in  the  same 
way.  The  cream  centers,  which  have  been  separated  from  the 
starch,  are  then  sent  in  large  trays  to  the  Chocolate  Coating  room. 


The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

Chocolate  Coating 

The  original  method  of  chocolate  coating,  and  one  which  is  still 
in  use  for  the  finest  grades  of  work,  is  entirely  a  hand  process.  The 
table  for  chocolate  coating  consists  of  a  large  square  marble  slab, 
accommodating  four  girls,  one  on  each  side.  In  the  center  is  a 
kettle  of  chocolate,  warmed  by  steam  or  electricity  to  a  sufficient 
temperature  to  keep  it  soft.     A  small  quantity  of  this  chocolate  is 

Twenty-five  of  these,  each  accommodating-  four  girls,  are  placed  in  rows 

in    the    room 

ladled  from  the  kettle  and  poured  on  the  surface  of  the  slab  to  cool. 
The  operator  watches  this  cooling  process  very  closely,  and  when 
the  correct  temperature  has  been  reached,  which  is  determined 
simply  by  her  delicate  sense  of  touch,  the  cream  is  rolled  in  it  until 
it  is  covered  to  a  sufficient  thickness.    It  is  then  placed  on  a  tray  to 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 


harden.  This  operation  requires  an  unusual  degree  of  skill,  for  if 
the  temperature  is  slightly  high  and  the  coating  too  soft,  it  will 
flow  from  the  cream,  leaving  a  very  thin  covering  at  the  top  and  a 
very  heavy  "foot"  at  the  bottom.  On  the  other  hand,  if  the  coating 
is  too  cool  when  the  operation  is  performed,  the  resultant  chocolate 
will  be  rough  and  irregular,  instead  of  leaving  the  smooth,  glossy 
appearance  which  is  so  much  desired. 

The  process  of  stamping  the  manufacturer's  name  on  the  bot- 
tom of  each  chocolate  is  accomplished  simply  by  placing  each  fin- 
ished piece,  while  still  warm  and  soft,  on  tins  or  heavy  papers  hav- 
ing the  name  embossed  on  them  at  intervals. 

Another  great  stride  in  the  manufacture  of  confectionery  has 
been  made  in  chocolate  coating.  The  machine  which  accomplishes 
this  is  called  the  Enrober.    In  this  process  the  centers  are  placed  in 

For  coating  chocolates 

rows  on  a  moving  belt,  which  carries  them  to  the  machine.  Here 
they  encounter  a  short  belt  of  wire  mesh,  through  which  soft 
chocolate  is  being  forced  from  underneath.  As  they  pass  over  this, 
a  coating  of  chocolate  is  applied  to  the  bottom  of  each  piece.  The 
cream  centers,  thus  coated,  then  move  automatically  to  a  third  belt, 
which  carries  them  to  the  next  operation.  They  pass  over  a  short 
section  of  wire  mesh  belting,  above  which  is  suspended  a  tank  of 
chocolate  coating  kept  warm  by  means  of  a  steam-jacket.  From 
the  bottom  of  this  tank  a  thin  sheet  of  the  chocolate  flows  con- 
tinuously, coating  the  tops  and  sides  of  the  creams  as  they  pass 
under.  The  surplus  coating  flows  through  the  wire  mesh  into  a 
pan  beneath,  from  which  it  is  automatically  pumped  again  to  the 
suspended  tank.  The  finished  chocolates  then  pass  on  to  a  fifth  belt, 
to  which  are  attached,  at  intervals,  sheets  of  heavily  waxed  paper. 
As  each  of  these  is  filled,  it  is  removed  by  an  attendant,  placed  in 
tiers  on  a  movable  truck,  and  carried  to  a  cool  room  for  the  chocolate 
to  harden. 

12  The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

While  the  Enrober  does  excellent  work,  it  is  impossible  to 
obtain  the  same  degree  of  fineness  and  regularity  as  in  handwork, 
and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  the  old  method  is  still  used  for  the 
finest  grades  of  chocolates. 

The  methods  just  described  are  typical  of  the  manufacture  of 
a  large  proportion  of  the  goods  which  enter  into  the  confectioner's 
assortment ;  the  variety  of  chocolates  being  obtained  by  substituting 
nuts,  fruits,  jellies,  caramels,  marshmallows,  etc.,  for  the  cream 
centers  first  described. 

The  Manufacture  of  Chocolate  Coating 
The  process  of  the  manufacture  of  the  chocolate  coating  itself 
is  interesting  and  may  be  described  quite  briefly.  Chocolate  is 
obtained  from  the  cocoa  bean,  the  varieties  most  used  being  grown 
principally  in  South  and  Central  America,  the  West  Indies,  Ceylon 
and  Africa.  These  vary  greatly  in  flavor,  aroma  and  strength.  To 
obtain  the  best  results,  various  grades  are  combined,  very  much  as 
is  done  with  coffees.  The  pods  in  which  the  beans  grow  are  about 
the  size  of  a  cocoanut,  but  they  are  removed  from  these  pods  before 
being  shipped.  When  received  by  the  confectioner  they  are  first 
placed  in  huge  revolving  ovens  over  a  slow  fire  and  roasted  to  such  a 
point  as  will  bring  out  to  the  fullest  extent  the  delightful  aroma  of 
chocolate.  They  are  then  coarsely  ground,  the  hulls  being  separated 
from  the  bean  itself.  These  broken  beans,  or  nibs,  as  they  are 
called,  are  then  taken  to  the  milling  machine,  in  which  they  are 
ground  very  fine  by  being  passed  successively  under  heavy  mills  of 
stone  or  iron,  somewhat  similar  to  those  used  in  the  grinding  of 
flour.  Considerable  heat  is  generated  in  this  process,  and  the 
resultant  mass  is  a  brownish  liquid  of  the  consistency  of  molasses, 
known  as  "chocolate  liquor."  This  is  really  a  mixture  of  dry  cocoa 
and  the  oil  from  the  bean,  which  is  known  as  cocoa  butter.  The 
cocoa  is  separated  from  the  butter  by  means  of  a  hydraulic  press ; 
when  finely  powdered,  it  forms  the  basis  of  the  beverage  now  in 
such  extensive  use. 

The  chocolate  liquor,  above  described,  is  mixed  with  powdered 
sugar  and  a  small  additional  portion  of  cocoa  butter  in  the  melanger, 
then  run  repeatedly  between  heavy  steel  rolls  to  crush  still  further 
the  fine  particles  in  order  to  obtain  the  smoothness  which  is  so 
much  prized.  In  fine  confectionery  the  chocolate  is  subjected  to 
this  process  as  high  as  sixteen  to  twenty  times.  It  is  these  many 
operations,  carried  on  with  the  greatest  degree  of  care  by  skilful 
and  high-priced  workmen,  that  account  for  the  difference  in  price 
between  the  choice  grades  of  confectionery  and  those  sold  at  lower 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 


The  Jordan  Almond 

Another  interesting  piece  is  the  Jordan  Almond.  Who  would 
think  that  nearly  a  full  day  is  required  to  make  the  simple  sugar- 
coated  almond,  with  its  smooth,  hard  covering? 

For  this  process  a  large  revolving  copper  kettle  is  used,  the 
outside  encircled  by  steampipes;  this  is  known  as  a  "basin."  The 
basin  resembles  a  huge  hollow  cone,  lying  on  one  side,  with  the  base, 
which  is  open,  turned  up.  The  cone  is  pivoted  at  its  apex,  thus 
revolving  in  nearly  a  horizontal  plane. 


Long  rows  of  these   basins  face   one  another,   the  operator  working 

between    them.      This    shows    only    one    row 

As  the  great  basins  start  to  revolve,  one  hundred  pounds  of 
almonds,  thoroughly  dry,  are  placed  in  each  and  steam  is  turned 
into  the  pipes.  When  the  nuts  are  well  heated,  a  ladle  of  hot  syrup 
(sugar  dissolved  in  water)  is  poured  over  them.  The  rotary  motion 
of  the  basin  causes  the  almonds  to  tumble  over  and  over  one  another, 
thus  distributing  the  syrup  till  each  is  covered  with  a  thin  film, 
about  l-500th  of  an  inch  in  thickness.    When  this  is  dry  and  hard, 

14  The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

another  ladle  of  syrup  is  added  and  then  another,  until  slowly  and 
laboriously  the  shell  of  sugar  attains  the  desired  thickness.  The 
better  grades  have  a  comparatively  thin  coat,  the  cheaper  ones 
much  thicker.  The  various  flavors  and  tints  are  obtained  by  add- 
ing, at  the  end,  a  ladle  of  colored  and  flavored  syrup. 

Decorative  Candy 

While  machinery  is  used  in  almost  every  process  of  candy 
manufacture,  there  is  one  field  in  which  it  cannot  compete  with 
hand-made  goods.  This  is  the  production  of  exquisite,  hand-made 
pieces  for  decorating  the  dinner  tables  at  banquets  and  state  occa- 


Made    entirely    of    Hard    Candy 

The  basket  shown  in  the  illustration  was  made  by  one  of  the 
leading  Philadelphia  confectioners.  It  represents  hours  of  tedious 
work  by  two  expert  candymakers,  being  made  of  hard  candy, 
worked  while  hot  and  soft  into  the  desired  shape.  The  basket  is 
woven  of  long  strands,  about  one-quarter  of  an  inch  in  diameter. 
The  flowers  are  built  up  petal  by  petal,  each  piece  being  deftly 
formed  by  itself  and  then  fastened  to  the  stem.  The  basket  itself 
is  filled  with  spun  sugar,  fine  hairlike  strands,  in  one  soft  mass,  and 
in  this  are  placed  the  fruits  or  ices  to  be  served  for  dessert. 

In  the  confectionery  business  there  are  two  very  widely  differ- 
ent means  of  distribution. 

The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia  15 

In  the  first,  the  various  kinds  of  chocolates  and  other  candies 
are  handled  in  bulk,  being  packed  in  five-pound  boxes,  or  sometimes 
in  pails.  These  are  handled  just  like  wheat  or  any  other  com- 
modity, and  the  identity  of  the  manufacturer  is  lost  before  it 
reaches  the  consumer.  They  are  generally  sold  through  jobbers  to 
the  smaller  retail  confectioners,  who  market  them  as  their  own 
goods,  in  connection  with  certain  lines  which  they  themselves  may 
manufacture.  This  method  of  distribution  applies  principally  to 
the  cheaper  grades  of  candy,  and  also  to  those  kinds  which  require 
a  large  plant  and  extensive  equipment  for  their  manufacture,  such 
as  chocolate  coating,  marshmallows,  gum  drops  and  pastes.  In 
most  instances,  even  the  smallest  confectioners  manufacture  the 
simpler  goods,  such  as  stick  candy,  molasses  taffies,  etc.,  and  a  great 
many  get  up  their  own  lines  of  chocolates  by  making  the  centers 
and  purchasing  the  chocolate  coating  with  which  to  cover  them. 

In  the  second  method  of  distribution  the  goods  are  packed  by 
the  manufacturer  himself  in  small  boxes  of  varying  sizes  suitable 
for  retail  consumption,  and  in  many  instances  in  small  cartons, 
retailing  from  five  to  twenty-five  cents.  These,  too,  are  sold  in 
some  instances  through  jobbers,  but  in  the  case  of  higher-priced 
goods  they  are  usually  sent  direct  from  the  manufacturer  to  his 
retail  agent.  In  this  way  it  is  possible  to  handle,  even  at  a  dis- 
tance, many  perishable  goods  which  otherwise  could  be  sold  only  at 
the  place  of  manufacture.  To  the  firm  of  Whitman's  belongs  the 
credit  for  having  been  the  first  to  pack  confectionery  in  attractive 
boxes  for  widespread  distribution.  These  are  now  shipped  to  all 
parts  of  the  country,  from  Maine  to  Alaska,  as  well  as  to  our 
insular  possessions. 

^  OF  CONG** 

4  635  757  A    0 




PURPOSE — To  make  Philadelphia's  life,  industry,  history,   and   government 
known,  understood,  and  appreciated  by  all  its  citizens. 

No.    I  Thrift — a  short  text-book 

No.  2  The  Trust  Companies    of  Philadelphia 

No.  3  The  Rug  and  Carpet  Industry  of  Philadelphia 

No.  4  The  Locomotive  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

No.  5  Truck  Farming  in  Philadelphia 

No.  6  The  Candy  Making  Industry  in  Philadelphia 

No.   7  Leather  and  Glazed  Kid   Industry  in  Philadelphia 

No.  8  Mills— Distribution  in  Philadelphia